Medicine in Ancient Egypt
An Egyptian physician of the Eighteenth Century (1500-1400 B.C.), clothed in clean white linen and a wig, as became the dignity of his status, is confronted with a patient having symptoms of lockjaw (described in an ancient scroll now known as the Edwin Smith papyrus). With sure, sympathetic hands, the physician treats the patient, who is supported by a "brick chair." Directions for treatment appear on the scroll held by his assistant. Specially trained priests observe prescribed magico-religious rites. Egyptian medicine occupied a dominant position in the world of the ancients for 2500 years.
Code of Hammurabi
The clay tablets of ancient Mesopotamia document the practice of medicine as early as 3000 B.C. Of significance to medicine, too, is one of the oldest regulatory laws, the Code of Hammurabi, promulgated by that Babylonian ruler about 2000 B.C. In a Babylonian throne room, a physician is defending with diginity his professional practices against the complaints of a dissatisfied patient who seeks invocation of the drastic penalties of the Code. The King, the scribe, court attachés, guards, priests, friends of the plaintiff and of defendant, comprise the cast of the critical drama of law and of medicine 4000 years ago.
Trephening in Ancient Peru
On the dry, sun-swept Pacific coastline of the Paracas peninsula, a first-century Peruvian surgeon is beginning a trephining operation with the aid of knives of glass-hard obsidian, a crude plant narcotic, cotton, and bandages. Assistants immobilize the patient, and a priest seeks supernatural intervention throuh incanations and prayers as the slow and highly hazardous operation proceeds. Peru was the center of intensive practice of trephining in the New World, where the operation (opening of the skulls of living patients) can be traced from well before dawn of the Christian era to the twentieth century.
Primitive medicine is timeless. It is as old as the cave dweller, yet in many remote parts of world its practice is as new as today. The sandpainting ceremonies of American Navaho Indians are unusually beautiful examples of primitive medicine, embodying all its elements --physio--and psychotherapy, religion, magic, singing, and drug lore. In a medicine "hogan" family and friends join in the Mountain Chants' nine-day ceremonies, in which this sandpainting has an important part. The "singer" (medicine man) sings, prays, and manipulates magico-religious artifacts. Herb preparations given the patient are shared by the "singer" and by the spectactors too in this primitive health-seeking rite.
The Temples and Cult of Asclepius
Every night for nearly a thousand years (500 B.C. - 500 A.D.), sick and afflicted pilgrims flocked to the Grecian Temples of Asclepius to take part of a ritual called incubation. The ancient kindly god of medicine was expected to visit them during a dream state and either heal or prescribe drugs, diet, and modes of treatment. Only requisites were that they should be clean and "think pure thoughts." To show their appreciation, recipients of Asclepius' favor caused votives (stone or terra cotta images of the afflicted parts which supposedly had been healed) to be made, suitably inscribed, and presented to be hung as testimony on the temple walls. More than 200 such temples existed.
Susruta - Suregeon Of Old India
Susruta, famed Hindu surgeon, is depicted in the home of a noble of ancient India, about to begin an otoplastic operation. The patient drugged with wine, is steaded by friends and relatives as the great surgeon sets about fashioning an artificial ear lobe. He will use a section of flesh to be cut from the patient's cheek; it will be attached to the stump of the mutilated organ, treated with hemostatic powders and bandaged. Details of this procedure, and of Su?ruta's surgical instruments, are to be found in the "Susruta-samhita," ancient Indian text. Plastic surgery was practiced in India more than 2000 years ago.
Hippocrates - Medicine Becomes A Science
The art of medicine in the ancient world developed to its highest point in Greece, durng the millennium between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D. This creative period is symbolized by Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine," whose name has come to represent the beauty, value, and dignity of medicine for all times. Hippocrates' kindness and concern are embodied in his aphorism, "Where there is love for mankind, there is love for the art of healing." These qualities are reflected in the face of this great practioner, scientist, and teacher, as he palpates a young patient and attempts to sooth a worried mother sometime late in the fifth century B.C. His name is still revered in medical circles.
Galen - Influence for 45 Generations
Galen was a pillar of medicine; the last important pillar in the millennium of Greek domination of the medical world. Physician to emperors as well as commoners in the Roman Empire, Galen (130-220 A.D.) traveled extensively, lectured widely, wrote prolifically. The great Greek was a shrewd observer who gained much experience through experimentation. Cupping was among the forms of treatment which he advocated. Pharmacy as well as medicine benefited from his formulas, called "galenicals;" he was a leader in the health sciences of his day. Galen's teachings were accepted as dogma by both teachers and practioners of medicine for fifteen hundred years.
Rhazes and Arabic Medicine
The West is deeply indebted to medieval Arabs for preservation of ancient Greco-Roman knowledge during the Middle Ages. and for improving on it. Our numeral system and many words, such as alcohol, came from the East, as did many medical advances. Leaders in the Arabic medicine were the Persians, Rhazes, and Avicenna. Rhazes (865-925 A.D.), noted for keen observation and inventiveness, was first to describe measles and smallpox; to observe pupillary reaction to light; to use mercurial purgatives; and to publish a text on children's diseases. His teachings were highly regarded for many centuries.
The Great Room of the Poor (La Grand' Chambre des Povres) is believed to be the world's oldest edifice to have been in continuous use as a hospital. Representative of medieval hospitals, it is a part of the Hôtel-Dieu of Beaune, France, founded in 1443. Combined with modern professional hospital service it carefully preserves the atmosphere of the fifteenth century. A small chapel is located at the end of the room. Sisters of the Congregation of Sainte Marthe, garbed in habits traditional to their ancient order, have cared for the sick, the aged, and the indigent in this hospital for more than five hundred years, uninterrupted by wars, by economic upheavals, or by political changes.
Paracelsus- Stormy Petrel of Medicine
In the Renaissance "chemical kitchens" of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541), who boastfully called himself Paracelsus, many things were brewed: chemicals, polypharmacal mixtures, serious medical writings - and vitriolic, abusive attacks upon medical colleagues, religionists, and political officials. Swiss-born Paracelsus' controveries forced him to travel widely, move frequently. Labeled genius by some, quack by others, his medical effors got results, and patients liked him. He attacked medieval "sacred cows," Galen and Avicenna, helped turn medicine from them to rational research. He attempted to manufacture new remedies, and he advocated use of chemicals in medicine.
Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, first great teacher of anatomy from natural observations, conducted many anatomical demonstrations on human bodies while Professor of Surgery and of Anatomy at the University of Padua, 1537-1543. Highly successful, these were attended by medical students, physicians, interested civic officials, sculptors and artists. First to break with Galen's 1400-year-old anatomical texts, Vesalius published "Tabulae Anatomicae Sex" in 1538, and the monumental "De Humani Corporis Fabrica" in 1543. Though reviled and ridiculed by Galenists, the validity of Vesalius' works soon overcame detractors and they became classic in medical literature.
Ambroise Paré: Surgery Acquires Stature
Ambroise Paré, a young French army surgeon with troops of King François at Turin, in 1536, had his first experience treated men for arquebus wounds. Running ouf of boiling oil (traditional treatment for gunshot injuries), he improvised, discovered that unburned patients healed much better, and resolved never to use hot oil again. Countless soliders and citizens benefited from this rule. It was some years later, in 1552, that Paré put aside cautery irons used to stop bleeding in amputations and reintroduced ligatures for tying blood vessels. During his life (1510-1590), inventive, observant, compassionate Paré served as surgeon to four French kings; earned the title: "Father of Surgery."
Harvey and the Circulation of Blood
William Harvey, slight, energetic, scientific English physician of the seventeenth century, with his famed pointed in hand, used demonstrations to prove his revolutionary theory of the circulation of blood, during his anatomical lectures before the College of Physicians of London. His book, "De Motu Cordis," published in 1628, upset traditional followers of Galen, rought entirely new concepts of circulations and of anatomy to medicine. Harvey, a graduate in medicine from Padua and Cambridge, physician to Kings James I and Charles I, was unperturbed by criticism, dedicated to research and to hard work. He died in 1657, after having seen his theory generally accepted by physicians.
Leeuwenhoek and the "Little Animals"
Antony van Leewenhoek, draper of seventeenth-century Delft, Holland, in his spare time retired to his "closet" to observe the wonders of the microscopic world through tiny lenses he laboriously ground and mounted. He was the first to report having seen "animalcules" - protozoa and bacteria - and to confirm by direct observation circulation of the blood. Though 200 years elapsed before practical application of his discoveries contributed to medicine, his work laid foundations for modern medicine's tremendous century-long onslaught against diseases caused by bacteria and other microbiologic entities - a world-wide campaign which has resulted in saving of millions of lives.
Sydenham: Proponent of Clinical Medicine
Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), seventeenth-century London physician, at the bedside of a patient - the only place, he believed, where doctors could learn about disease. Sydenham's plain Puritan costume contrasts markedly with high-fashion raiment worn by his lifelong friend, John Locke, physician-philosopher, who frequently accompanied him on his rounds of patients. Sydenham's honest and straighforward observations, accepted and published in many countries, earned him such posthumous titles as that of the "English Hippocrates," and also the "Father of Clinical Medicine in Britain."
James Lind: Conqueror of Scurvy
Surgeon of Britian's Royal Navy aboard H.M.S. Salisbury, in the English Channel in 1747, James Lind conducted a series of clinical experiments that definitely proved citrus fruits or their juices could cure scurvy, dread dietary-deficiency disease that killed a million seamen between 1600 and 1800. Dr. Lind's work, at sea, in Edinburgh, and at Haslar Naval Hospital, plus his three books, on scurvy on care of sailors' health, and on tropical diseases, had much to do with reforming naval health practices, saving lives both on sea and land, and shaping destinies of nations, as world commerce increased.
Morgagni and Pathologic Anatomy
In the famous anatomic amphitheatre built in 1590, Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) demonstrated before medical students from many countries during the 56 years he served as Professor of Anatomy at the famed University of Padua. Although his first book was published in 1704, Morgagni's greatest contribution to medicine, "On the Seats and Causes of Disease," came out 57 years later, in 1761. This five-book work, embodying a lifetime's experience in dissection and in observation, convinced medical men that diseases were not dispersed generally throughout the body, but got their start locally in specific organs or tissues. It ranks high among 18th-century scientific works.
John Hunter: Founder of Scientific Surgery
From an untutored Scottish country boy, John Hunter (1728-1793) rose to become eighteenth-century London's foremost surgeon and medical scientist. Combining natural talent, insatiable curiosity, and keen observation, he was one of the greatest comparative anatomists of all time. The skeletons of the now-extinct Great Auk and of the Irish Giant are two of 13,682 specimens which comprised his famous collections, war-spared remnants of which still are on exhibit in London's Royal College of Surgeons. Posthumously, Dr. Hunter was honored as "The Founder of Scientific Surgery."
Lavoisier: Oxygen, Combustion, and Respiration
Greatest contribution of science to Medicine during the eighteenth century came from experiments relating to the processes of respiration, conducted between 1789 and 1792 by the Parisian chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, in his laboratory at the Royal Arsenal. Mme. Lavoisier was his closest collaborator. Together with a young assistant, Sequin, Lavoisier recorded oxygen intake and carbon dioxide exhalation by a man while resting, while working, and while eating, and compared the results with statistics on combustion of carbon. Lavoisier made many scientific, social, economic, financial, and political contributions before French revolutionary radials executed him in 1794.
Professional, moral, and physical courage of Dr. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) was taxed to exhaustion during the 1793 yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, capital of the the new United States of America. Those residents who could, fled; those who could not were decimated by disease. Horror and hysteria reigned. Hundreds died daily. Dr. Rush stayed, cared for patients, personally survived two attacks of fever. Though his heroic treatments were severly criticized, Rush was unswerving. Patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence, leader in the country's first medical school, Dr. Rush came to be called the first great physician in the United States of America.
Pinel Unchains the Insane
The Father of Psychiatry, French physician Philippe Pinel, in 1795 ordered chains and fetters removed from insame women in the Salpêtrière, large Parisian hospital. Two years earlier, he had similarily unchained insane men in the Bicêtre. Despite political and medical opposition and uncertainties of life during the hectic period of the French Revolution, Pinel persisted in replacing cruelty and inhumanity with understanding, kindness, and rational therapy. His success in curing and relieving patients suffering from mental diseases opened new perspectives for psychiatric research and practice.
Jenner: Smallpox is Stemmed
The first vaccination against smallpox was performed by Edward Jenner, English rural physician, in his apartment in the Chantry House, Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Exudate from a cowpox pusule on the hand of dairymaid, Sarah Nelmes, was inserted in scratches on the arm of eight-year-old James Phipps, May 14, 1796. The vaccination was effective, for two later attempts to induce infection with smallpox pus were unsuccessful. After proving his discovery, Jenner published his vaccination findings in 1798. Despite opposition, vaccination became accepted practice during Jenner's lifetime.
Laennec and the Stethoscope
Theophile Laennec (1781-1826), young French physician, while at Necker Hospital, Paris, in 1816, devised foot-long, hollow, wooden cylinders for listening to sounds in patients' chests. These he called "stethoscopes." Comparing opinions formed during stethoscopic examinations with later findings in autopsy, Laennec learned to accurately diagnose pathologic heart and lung conditions, and to better understand many chest diseases. his instrument and his published reports on its use were among the greater contributions to nineteenth-century medicine, helping physicians to understand pulmonary diseases - especially tuberculosis, the malady that ended Laennec's own short life.
Conquerors of Pain
Before a skeptical group of surgeons in the operating amphitheater of Massachusetts General Hospital, October 16, 1846, William T.G. Morton, Boston dentist, prepared to anesthetize Dr. John C. Warren's surgical patient, Gilbert Abbott, by causing him to enhale ether. Though Crawford W. Long, Georgia physician, had used ether for anesthesia in 1842, and Horace Wells, Connecticut dentist, tried unsuccessfully to demonstrate anesthesia with nitrous oxide in 1845, reports of painless operations resulting from Morton's methods gave practical anesthesia to mankind. Within a year ether was being used world-widely to conquer the pain incident to surgical operations.
Semmelweis-Defender of Motherhood
Hungarian physician Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865), while Assistant at the First Obstetric Clinic of Vienna's great Allgemeine Krankenhaus in 1847, discovered means of preventing puerperal fever: he insisted that physicians and medical students wash their hands in chlorinated solution before entering obstetric wards and again before examining each patient. His rule was much resented and opposed - but hundreds of mothers' lives were saved. Though his doctrine was proved repeatedly, in hospitals in Vienna and in Budapest, most of his contemporaries opposed it; and, both depressed from worry and broken-hearted from disappointment, Semmelweis died at age 47, of blood poisoning, the infection he had fought so valiantly to prevent in mothers under his care.
Founding of the American Medical Association
Advancement of medical knowledge, improved medical education, launcing of a program of medical ethics, and furtherance of public service - these were aims of The American Medical Association, organized May 7, 1847, by 250 delegates seated among exhibit cases and before ancient bones of a mastadon, Mammut americanum, in the hall of The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Chairman Jonathan Knight welcomed Dr. Nathaniel Chapman, first president (foreground) and officers as they launched what became the world's larger and greater medical bodies, now in its second century of service both to the public and to the profession.
Rudolf Virchow and Cellular Pathology
Just past his thirty-fourth year, in 1855, Dr. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) while professor at Wurzburg University, Germany, propounded his theory of cellular pathology. Lecturing and demonstrating at this specially made desk in the Wurzburg Krankenhaus, the slight, short, fiery professor used microscopes to convince students that cells were reproduced from other cells, and that diseease results from disturbance of cells by injury or irritants. Later, in Berlin, Virchow continued to lead international medical thought, and to teach, to engage in research, to write, to edit, to explore new fields, and to serve his community politically, until his death in 1902. The "little doctor" was a medical giant.
Hemholtz: Physicist- Physician
Among great contributions to medicine in the nineteenth century was the ophthalmoscope, an instrument used for inspection of the interior of they eye, invented in 1850 by Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), Professor of Physiology at Königsberg. Physician by training and teacher by profession, Helmholtz became Germany's foremost physicist, succeeding to the Chair of Physics at the University of Berlin. His contributions to the knowledge of acoustics nearly equaled those he made to physiologic optics. His discoveries in physics advanced knowledge in a dozen scientific fields, earned him ennoblement, and brought him eminence, distinction, and world-wide recognition.
J. Marion Sims: Gynecologic Surgeon
Little did James Marion Sims, M.D., (1813-1883) dream, that summer day in 1845, as he prepared to examine the slave girl, Lucy, that he was launching on an international career as a gynecologic surgeon; or that he was to raise gynecology from virtually an unknown to respected medical specialty. Nor did he realize that his crude back-yard hospital in Montgomery, Alabama, would be the forerunner of the nation's first Woman's Hospital, which Sims helped to establish in New York in 1855. Dr. Sims, who became a leader in gynecology in Europe as well as in the United States, served as president of The American Medical Association, 1875-1876; and was honored by many nations.
Bernard: Explorer of Pathologic Frontiers
The only place where Claude Bernard (1813-1878) felt at home, outside experimental laboratories, was a the provincial farm near Saint-Julien (Rhône), France, where he was born. Bernard's great skill at dissection and at observation gave medical science benefit of outstanding physiologic discoveries concerning pancreatic secretions, animal sugar, poisons, and vasomotor nerves. He held professorships in physiology at leading Paris schools; he was awarded national and international scientific honors; but his great book, "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine," was written at his old farm home whie he recuperated from recurrent attacks of illness.
Pasteur: The Chemist Who Transformed Medicine
Proof that microbes are reproduced from parent organisms, and do not result from spontaneous generation, came from careful experiments in makeshift laboratories of France's famed chemist and biologist, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), at the Ecole Normale, Paris. Behind him are portraits of his father and mother, which he painted during his youth. Mme. Pasteur waits patiently for him to complete an observation. From basic work in these laboratories came proof of the germ theory of disease, which transformed medical practice; vaccines for virulent diseases, including anthrax and rabies; solution of many industrial biochemical problems; and founding of the Pasteur Insitute.
Lister Introduces Antisepsis
When Surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912) of Glasgow Royal Infirmary removed dressings from James Greenlees' compound fracture, the would had healed without infection - something unheard of before. For six weeks, beginning August 12, 1865, Lister had treated the boy's wound with carbolic acid. Now, Lister had proof of success of this principle of antisepsis - which was to revolutionize methods of treatment and to open new vistas in practice of surgery, of medicine, and of environmental sanitation. Hospials were turned from "houses of torture and death" to "houses of healing and cure." In 1897, Lister became the first British surgeon to be elevated to peerage.
Charcot: Master of Neurology
Greatest neurologist of the 19th century, Parisian physician Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) developed La Salpêtrière from an asylum for indigent women to one of France's leading hospitals. Charcot's study and care of its vast patient population led to teaching, research, and the creation of the world's leading neurological clinic; attracted students from many nations; raised neurology to a respected medical science. Some of Charcot's teachings inspired Sigmund Freud of Vienna (Charcot's student, 1885-1886) to develop the world-famous Freudian hypothesis on psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.
The Hopkins' Revolution in Medical Education
Success of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, opened in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1893, stemmed from policies developed at meetings of the Faculty of Medicine and its advisors during formative years. The School, with cooperation of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, was to become world renowned for emphasis on research, for high admission standards, and for innovations in medical training. These advanced teaching methods influenced a revolutuon in medical education, led to higher requirements for medical licensure, brought about closure of many substandard schools of medicine, and helped raise the status of medicine in the United States to a position of world leadership.
Röentgen: Invisible Rays That Save Lives
At his first public demonstration of newly discovered x-rays, the evening of January 23, 1896, Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen (1845-1923) astounded scientists who filled the room. Professor of Physics and Rector of University of Würzburg, Germany, Röentgen completed his demonstration by taking an x-ray photograph of the hand of famed Professor of Anatomy, Albert von Kölliker. This led to discussion of possible medical applications. The news traveled fast, and within a year, x-ray equipment was being employed by medical men around the world as a diagnostic tool. Later research revealed many theraputic and industrial applications, as well as the hidden dangers, of x-rays.
The Conquest of Yellow Fever
Methods of controlling and preventing yellow fever resulted from investigations conducted in 1900 at Camp Lazear, Cuba, by a United States Army commission led by Major Walter Reed (1851-1902). This research proved conclusively that mosquitos carry the yellow fever virus from person to person. First volunteer patient to be infected by mosquito bites was Private John Kissinger. Examining physicians were Major W. C. Gorgas, Havana sanitation officer; Dr. Aristides Agramonte, pathologist; Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, chairman of the cooperating Cuban Yellow Fever Commission and first man to point out the positive infective role of mosquitos; Dr. James Carroll, bacteriologist; and Dr. Reed, commission chairman.
Walter B. Cannon: Physiologic Investigator
While a first-year student at Harvard Medical School, Boston, in 1896, Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945) employed newly discovered x-rays to study the activities of digestive organs in animals. Cannon induced cats to eat radiopaque meals, and followed food through alimentary organs with the aid of a fluroscopic screen. Basic studies of digestion, and of effects of emotions on it, led to new understandings of food utilization, of transmission of nerve impulses, and of actions of endocrine glands. Second Professor of Physiology at Harvard, Dr. Cannon earned world-wide respect as a researcher, as a teacher, and also as an ambassador of scientific good will.
Enrlich: Chemotherapy is Launched
In a crowded laboratory at Frankfurt's Institute of Experimental Therapy, German research scientist Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) habitually scrawled work orders to associates with stubby colored pencils on "blocks" of note paper. Dr. Ehrlich and his Japanese assistant, Dr. Sahachiro Hata, announced Salvarsan (606) to the world in 1910 as a "chemical bullet" for treatment of syphilis. Dr. Ehrlich's success with chemical synthesis gave impetus to a new medical science, chemotherapy. Though his greatest achievements were in this field, Dr. Ehrlich contributed to many branches of medicine and shared in a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on immunology.
Ramón y Cajal: Charting the Nervous System
Boyhood teachers were positive that no good would come from backward, headstrong Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), but the country surgeon's son was destined to become Spain's leading medical scientist and a world-renowned neuroanatomist. His contributions to neurology and to psychiatry began in a crowded laboratory in Barcelona. For 40 years, Ramón y Cajal combined insatiable scientific curiosity, inventiveness that resulted in new stains for sections under his microscope, intensive observation, and inborn artistic ability, to reveal a wealth of new anatomical and functional facts about the nervous system, and about disorders affecting it. He received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1906.
Harvey Cushing and Neurosurgery
Surgery on highly sensitive tissues of the brain was seldom attempted, even after anesthesia and sepsis became standard operating room procedures. Not until the early 1900's was the tremendous risk of life reduced by research and delicate surgical techniques, many of them developed and taught by Ohio-born Dr. Harvey W. Cushing, at Johns Hopkins, at Harvard and at Yale. Dr. Cushing removed 2,000 brain tumors; developed a "school" of students from many lands who put up with his pungent personality in order to learn his methods. Adolph Watzka, surgical orderly, for many years was his constant operating room companion.
Goldberger: Dietary Deficiency and Disease
When Dr. Joseph Goldberger, Surgeon, United States Public Health Service, and his assistant, Dr. C. H. Waring, begam studies of pellagra at the Baptist Orphanage near Jackson, Mississippi, in 1914, they faced puzzling questions: why were adults, older children, and the very young, free of the disease? Why, every year, did it strike children aged three to twelve? Dr. Goldberger ruled out infection or toxic foods as causes. With cooperation of Director J.R. Carter and House Mother "Miss Ida," the doctors added fresh meat, eggs, and milk to diets. Pellagra disappeared. By bold experiments, Dr. Goldberger proved dietary deficiency the cause of pellagra; pointed other researchers toward discovery of essential nutrients, now called vitamins, required to maintain health.
Banting, Best, and Diabetes
During the summer of 1921, Charles H. Best, youthful biologist, and Dr. Frederick G. Banting experiemented in laboratories loanded by Professor J.J.R. Macleod of the Physiology Department, University of Toronto. The inexperienced Canadian investigators found what trained research men before them had missed -- an extract of the pancreas the controlled the high blood sugar of diabetes mellitus. Proved and reproved on laboratory animals, their extract was tried on a human diabetic in February, 1922. Best developed mass production methods while studying for a medical degree. Banting and Best's discovery of insulin gave hope of life to millions of diabetics who otherwise would have been doomed.
The Era of Antibiotics
When Dr. Alexander Fleming, British bacteriologist who had discovered penicillin in 1928, heard in 1940 that Drs. Florey, Chain, and their "team" had isolated the antibiotic and had found it successful when tested on mice for efficary and toxicity, at Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, he decided to visit them and see their work. The three men shared a Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945. Cooperation of British and United States scientists, governments, and institutions developed mass production methods for penicillin; met wartime needs; launched new research. Antibiotics brough about a revolution in the practice of medicine. In the laboratory are: Drs. Fleming, Howard W. Florey, Ernst B. Chain, A.G. Sanders, E.P. Abraham, and Norman G. Heatley.
Medicine Today and Tomorrow
Medicine is ancient, yet ever new. The scientific discoveries and advances resulting from work of countless thousands of dedicated medical men throughout fifty centuries are at the command of today's physician, and through him, brought to focus upon the needs of sick patients. Never before in the world's history have people had the medical advantages available today. Physicians, research scientists, specialists in production and distribution, are all collaborating in a constant effort to improve medical service and to make available better diagnoses, better treatment, and better medicines for a better world.